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默默無聞的反法西斯女英雄(上)

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Books and Arts

文學與藝術

Book Review

書評

A Heroine of the Resistance - Together in Berlin

抵抗運動中的女英雄——同在柏林

All the Frequent Troubles of Our Days. By Rebecca Donner.

《生活中常用的麻煩》,作者:麗貝卡·唐納。

In February 1943 a sympathetic chaplain at Plotzensee Prison in Berlin made one last visit to a condemned woman. She was bent over a book of Goethe’s poems, writing English translations in the margins. Mildred Harnack, an American teacher, was executed that day on Hitler’s direct orders. More than half a century later her great-great-niece found the book in the archives of the German Resistance Memorial. Harnack had been a leading figure in the anti-Nazi underground; yet whereas the world honoured such martyred anti-fascists as Sophie Scholl, killed six days later, almost nothing was known of this idealistic professor of literature from Wisconsin, or of how she came to lead the largest resistance cell in Berlin.

1943年2月,在柏林普洛贊塞監獄裏,一位富有同情心的牧師最後一次探望一名被判死刑的女性。她伏在一本歌德的詩集上,在頁邊空白處寫着英語譯文。美國教師米爾德里德·哈納克在希特勒的直接命令下在那天被處決。半個多世紀後,她的曾孫侄女在德國抵抗運動紀念館的檔案中發現了這本書。哈納克曾是反納粹地下組織的領袖人物;然而,儘管全世界都在紀念蘇菲·紹爾這樣的反法西斯烈士,但他們對於這位來自威斯康星州的理想主義文學教授幾乎一無所知,也不知道她是如何領導柏林最大的抵抗組織的。

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This obscurity was no accident. After the defeat of the Nazis, Harnack’s sister, aghast at reports of her involvement with anti-fascists and Soviet spies, ordered family members to destroy her letters. Fortunately her mother did not comply, stashing the correspondence in an attic. Harnack’s niece, Jane Donner, saw to it that the story was handed down to her own granddaughter, Rebecca Donner — who has produced a compelling portrait of her forebear’s courage, along with that of her German husband Arvid and their comrades.

這種默默無聞並非偶然。納粹戰敗後,哈納克的妹妹被她與反法西斯分子和蘇聯間諜有牽連的報道嚇壞了,命令家人銷燬她的信件。幸運的是,她的母親沒有照辦,把那些信件藏在了閣樓裏。哈納克的侄女簡·唐納將這個故事傳給了她自己的孫女麗貝卡·唐納。麗貝卡·唐納生動地描繪了她的先輩哈納克和她的德國丈夫阿維爾德以及他們的同伴們的勇氣。

Those who resisted the Nazis in Germany knew that they were marked. Harnack and Arvid, who met and married while at the University of Wisconsin, were a young academic couple living in Berlin when Adolf Hitler became chancellor in 1933. Immediately they formed a “discussion circle” of students, friends, factory workers, professors and writers, debating what to do as the Nazis locked up their enemies. Over the years the circle’s resistance strategies evolved, from leaflets to recruitment of new members to serving as Soviet spies while posing as “a dutiful servant of the Third Reich”.

那些在德國抵抗納粹的人知道他們被盯上了。哈納克和阿爾維德在威斯康辛大學相識並結婚,1933年阿道夫·希特勒就任德國總理時,他們還是一對住在柏林的年輕學者夫婦。他們立即組成了一個由學生、朋友、工廠工人、教授和作家組成的“討論圈”,探討如何應對納粹對他們敵人的關押。多年來,這個組織的抵抗策略不斷演變,從散發傳單到招募新成員,再到偽裝成“第三帝國的忠實僕人”充當蘇聯間諜。

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portrait ['pɔ:trit]

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academic [.ækə'demik]

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frequent ['fri:kwənt]

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